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http://www.codas.periodikos.com.br/article/doi/10.1590/2317-1782/20202020041
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O impacto da implementação do Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS na compreensão de instruções em crianças com Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo

The Impact of the Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System – PECS on Understanding Instructions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Patricia de Almeida Santos, Daniela Bordini, Monica Scattolin, Graccielle Rodrigues da Cunha Asevedo, Sheila Cavalcante Caetano, Cristiane Silvestre Paula, Jacy Perissinoto, Ana Carina Tamanaha

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Resumo

Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o impacto da implementação do Picture Exchange Communication System – PECS na compreensão de instruções de crianças com Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo (TEA). Método: Trata-se de estudo longitudinal. A amostra foi constituída por 20 crianças com TEA não verbais, sendo 15 meninos e 5 meninas, na faixa etária de 6 a 12 anos, avaliadas e diagnosticadas por equipe multidisciplinar, segundo os critérios do DSM-5. Para avaliação da compreensão de instruções foram aplicadas 8 instruções visuais e 8 instruções orais, em dois momentos do Programa de Implementação do PECS: no início das fases II e IV. O programa foi composto por 24 sessões de terapia fonoaudiológica individual com a presença do familiar e obedeceu às seis fases propostas originalmente pelo Manual de Treinamento do PECS. Resultados: Houve aumento expressivo na compreensão de todas as instruções, na comparação entre os dois momentos do estudo; sendo que em seis das instruções orais (p=0,001) e cinco das instruções visuais (p=0,002), esse aumento foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: Foi possível observar o impacto positivo do uso do PECS na compreensão de instruções tanto visuais quanto orais, mostrando que esse sistema não apenas fornece uma ferramenta de comunicação aumentativa ou alternativa para a criança se expressar, mas também promove melhora significativa na compreensão das informações contextuais.

Palavras-chave

Transtorno Autístico; Fonoaudiologia; Comunicação; Linguagem; Criança  

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the implementation of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the comprehension of instructions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Methods: This is a longitudinal study (N° 0809/2018). The sample consisted of 20 children with nonverbal ASDs, 15 boys and 5 girls, aged 6 to 12 years, evaluated and diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team, according to the DSM- 5. For assessment of the comprehension of instructions, we used 8 visual instructions and 8 oral instructions were applied at two points in the PECS Implementation Program: early phases II and IV. The program consisted of 24 individual speech therapy sessions with the presence of the family member and obeyed the six phases originally proposed by the PECS Training Manual. Results: There was an expressive increase in the comprehension of all the instructions, in the comparison between the two moments of the study; and in six of the oral instructions (p=0.001) and five visual ones (p=0.002), this increase was statistically significant. Conclusion: It was possible to observe the positive impact of the use of PECS in the comprehension of both visual and oral instructions, showing that this system not only provides an augmentative or alternative communication tool for the child to express himself, but also promotes a significant improvement in the understanding of information contextual.

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder; Speech and Language Therapy; Communication; Language; Child  

Referências

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Submetido em:
29/02/2020

Aceito em:
18/05/2020

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