CoDAS
http://www.codas.periodikos.com.br/article/doipath/10.1590/2317-1782/20192018228
CoDAS
Revisão Sistemática

Criteria for tracheostomy decannulation: literature review

Critérios para decanulação da traqueostomia: revisão de literatura

Gisele Chagas de Medeiros; Fernanda Chiarion Sassi; Camila Lirani-Silva; Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade.

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Abstract

Purpose: To perform a literature review on the existing international criteria and protocols for tracheostomy decannulation. Research strategies: Literature review using the PubMed database with the English keywords “Tracheostomy”, “Weaning”, “Decannulation”, “Removal Tube”, “Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences”, “Intensive Care Units”, “Dysphagia”, “Swallowing”, “Deglutition” and “Deglutition Disorders “. Selection criteria: Studies published in the last five years (2012 to 2017); studies with human adult population (i.e. ages above 18 years); articles published in English; unrestricted full access articles; and research related to the objectives of the study. Data analysis: we analyzed sample characterization; professionals involved in the decannulation process; steps of the decannulation process; total time in days of tracheostomy use; total time in days to complete decannulation process; and failure factors to complete the decannulation process. Results: Most of the studies investigated tracheostomy decannulation in a sample of males with neurological impairments. The professionals involved in the decannulation process were doctors, speech therapists, physiotherapists and nurses. The most cited decannulation steps were: swallowing assessment; occlusion training; evaluation of air permeability; ability to manipulate secretion and exchange of cannula; cuff deflation and cough training; use of speech valve. Conclusion: Speech therapists are of great help during the decannulation process, since the assessment of swallowing was one of the decisive steps of the investigated studies. The processes of decannulation includes a multidisciplinary approach and should be performed by the cooperation between physicians, physiotherapists and speech therapists.

Keywords

Tracheostomy; Weaning; Deglutition; Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences; Review

Resumo

Objetivo: Realizar um levantamento bibliográfico a respeito da decanulação da traqueostomia para verificar os fatores e protocolos utilizados em estudos internacionais. Estratégia de pesquisa: Estudo de revisão de literatura utilizando a base de dados PubMed com os descritores em língua inglesa “Tracheostomy”, “Weaning”, “Decannulation”, “Removal tube”, “Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences”, “Intensive Care Units”, “Dysphagia”, “Swallowing”, “Deglutition” e “Deglutition Disorders”. Critérios de seleção: Estudos publicados nos últimos cinco anos (2012 a 2017), com população acima de 18 anos de idade; pesquisas realizadas somente com seres humanos; artigos publicados em língua inglesa; artigos com acesso completo irrestrito; pesquisas relacionadas aos objetivos do estudo. Análise dos dados: foram analisados quanto aos seguintes itens: caracterização da amostra; profissionais envolvidos no processo da decanulação; etapas do processo de decanulação; tempo total em dias de uso da traqueostomia; tempo total em dias para concluir processo de decanulação; fatores de insucesso para conclusão do processo de decanulação. Resultados: A maior parte da população estudada foi do gênero masculino e com alterações neurológicas. Dos profissionais envolvidos no processo de decanulação, participaram em ordem decrescente médicos, fonoaudiólogos, fisioterapeutas e enfermeiros. As etapas da decanulação mais citadas foram: avaliação da deglutição; treino de oclusão; avaliação da permeabilidade de passagem do ar; habilidade de manipulação de secreção e troca de cânula; desinsuflação do cuff e treino de tosse; uso de válvula de fala. Além disso, obtiveram-se dados a respeito do tempo total de traqueostomia e de decanulação. Conclusão: A presença do fonoaudiólogo é extremamente importante no processo de decanulação, visto que a avaliação da deglutição foi a etapa mais citada nos estudos, sendo esse trabalho realizado em conjunto com médicos e fisioterapeutas.

Palavras-chave

Traqueostomia; Desmame; Deglutição; Fonoaudiologia; Revisão

Referências

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Submetido em:
26/09/2018

Aceito em:
20/02/2019

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